12 principles of good burning of solid fuels
Teach the boiler service to all adult homeowners
You will avoid the danger of a serious explosion in the boiler room
Remember to clean the chimney regularly
You will avoid soot fire
Ensure proper ventilation of the boiler room: supply and exhaust
Fuel will burn better
Install a boiler sensor in the boiler
It costs approx. PLN 100 and can save your life
Use fuel suitable for your type of boiler
Prevent boiler failures and achieve high combustion efficiency
Use high quality fuel, ensure that the wood has the right moisture content
Dry wood heats much better than damp wood
Regularly clean the boiler, check the sealing of the door and other openings
You will avoid flue gas into the room
Choose the power of the boiler according to the heat demand of the building
A boiler that does not work in its optimum conditions consumes more fuel
Replace your old boiler with a modern one
You will save 30% of fuel and you will be gain more comfort
Do not burn garbage!
Burning plastics, tires, old shoes and clothes causes the emission of high-toxic compounds harmful to your health
Do not tolerate burning garbage in your neighborhood
It’s not informing, but taking care of the health of yours and your children
Have thermomodernization performed of the building
This will reduce the power of the boiler and heating costs
How to heat
Popular solid fuel fired boilers are top burning cast iron boilers. The boilers use a wide range of fuels – coal, fine coal or even wood. They are characterized by simple construction of the hearth. They are inexpensive and widely used. However, there are hardly any other benefits than the low price.
Fuel combustion takes place at the top of the furnace. Fuel is fed manually from above, and combustion air gets in from below. Flue gas is usually discharged upwards.
The basic disadvantage of traditional boilers is their very inefficient combustion. Adding cold coal to hot ashes causes smoke, and the smoke escapes with unburned carbon (up to 30% by weight!). Soot and tar pitch the chimney and the boiler. It requires constant supervision – you have to add coal often and in small amounts (every few hours) and burn it daily. It is quite hard and “dirty” work. It is difficult to control the combustion process here – the whole volume of fuel burns all the time.
The efficiency of old traditional boilers is often only 40%. More than half of the energy is wasted! In the new feeding boilers, the efficiency is up to 75%, although it drops significantly when the boiler is operated at less than the rated power.
Apply low-emission modern automatic boilers
One of the best boilers currently available on the market are the so-called retort boilers, i.e. automatic boilers with a retort furnace, with bottom co-current combustion. The boilers:
- are among the most modern and most effective constructions of boilers used to burn coal (e.g. “clean coal burning technology”), pellets, chips, sawdust or cereal grains,
- are characterized by continuous, automatically-controlled fuel feeding,
- are equipped with regulation and control of the amount of the air introduced into the combustion chamber, have a self-cleaning fire retort furnace,
- feature high power control capabilities, an automatic fuel and air delivery system, and a fuel tank that does not require constant service and is essentially limited to feeding fuel in the storage tank and removing ash (they can be operated without maintenance for 2 to 5 days).
The advantage of retort boilers is also the possibility of burning, e.g. biomass in the form of pellets and a mixture of pellets and coal, in addition to coal.
Burning is very economical. Fuel is automatically fed from below in small amounts, and the gases from coal are burned passing through the ash layer.
The efficiency of modern retort boilers is up to 90%. This means that to achieve the same amount of heat, it is enough to burn approx. 30% less fuel than in the case of conventional boilers.
If you heating using a traditional boiler – do it wisely
Follow some simple rules:
- Use high-quality fuel.
- Remember to clean the chimney regularly.
- Ensure proper ventilation of the boiler room: supply and exhaust.
- Use fuel suitable for the type of the boiler you use.
- Regularly clean the boiler, check the sealing of the door and other openings.
However, it is best to use the available funding and replace the boiler with a modern one.
Purchase of a new boiler
1. Match the right boiler output
The rated power of the boiler should be adjusted to the needs of the heated building. Do not buy a boiler that is too powerful, because if it operates at low power, its efficiency decreases significantly.
Without having an energy audit or a professional designer’s calculations, energy consumption can be estimated as based on the age of the building and the degree of its thermal insulation. The standards in force when it was constructed and the available materials provide an approximate idea of its energy intensity. The following should be assumed:
- 60-80 Watt power of a boiler per 1 m² of the heated surface (counting the floors) for a well-insulated modern house. For example, a house with the heated area of 150 m², needs the boiler’s rated power from 150 x 60 = 9kW to 150 x 80 = 12kW.
- 80-100 W / m² in the case of a 30-year-old or older house but after even partial inculation. This time it results in 12-15 kW.
- 100-120 W / m² for an older building, completely non-insulated, it results in 15-18 kW of the boiler power for a 150 m² house.
2. Choose a boiler that meets ecodesign requirements
Boilers that meet ecodesign requirements are characterized by minimal emissions and hig-energy efficiency. This ensures that the boiler is safe and economical and ecologically sound.
3. Choose a boiler with an automatic fuel feeder and a driver
Using an automatic feeder, the time between fuel loads is extended to several dozen hours. Users will enjoy the comfort of operation, but they will also ensure high efficiency of the device, because the fuel will be fed in small doses to be completely burned. The additional use of the controller will ensure proper combustion air flow, facilitate boiler start-up, support rapid power increase, signal the rising temperature and fuel burning time.
4. Adjust the chimney installation to the new boiler
A new boiler requires adaptation of the chimney installation for proper operation. Remember about mandatory chimney sweeps conduced at least once a year.
5. Refer to the operating instructions of the boiler and follow them
Check, in particular, what parameters should be met by the fuel for the boiler used and use only fuel of good quality. Bad fuel can damage the device.